Amore e pianto, vivono accanto

Encomium: Lonesome George

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I just read that Lonesome George, the presumed sole-remaining member of the Pinta Island giant tortoise species of the Galápagos, has died.  Lonesome George was more than just bearer of his evolutionary legacy.  He was an icon for the delicate precipice that all Galápagos species (and other threatened species globally) teeter upon.  Sadly, unless other Pinta individuals are somehow uncovered in the Galápagos or scattered around the world in zoos or other collections, Chelonoidis nigra abingdoni is gone forever.  Having visited the Galápagos Islands numerous times, I’m only too familiar with the raw hand dealt to these magnificent giants.

As early as 1789, whalers reached Galápagos shores having traveled halfway around the world to harvest its bounty.  And when they came ashore in search of freshwater, they slaughtered hundreds of thousands of giant Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone spp.) for food.  Decades of human visitors brought invasive species–goats and pigs–to these isolated islands, depleting native island vegetation which was food for grazing tortoises.  Rats, mice, and cats, who joined the ranks of Galápagos immigrants over the years, raided tortoise nests and wiped-out generations of new tortoise progeny.  Even scientists did their share in the depletion of giant tortoises.  In 1905 and 1906, for example, an expedition from the California Academy of Sciences cut a broad swath through the Galápagos, collecting a mind-boggling quantity of species, including 266 tortoises.

IN July of 2002, I visited the Galápagos and met Lonesome George for the first time.  It was my first trip to the islands and, being a good student of Darwin, I resolved to record as much as I could about my experiences in my field journal.  In memory and honor of Lonesome George’s passing, I thought I’d transcribe (unedited) a relevant passage from that first meeting:

24 July 2002

Puerto Ayora was packed with tourista boats.  Everywhere, a strong diesel smell permeates the air.  We boarded the panga and tooled along through red and black mangrove forests to the Darwin Research Station.  At the dock, several marine iguanas basked obliviously.  Some very young ones acting skittish.  Past a mangrove arch and into the compound and visitor center to watch two videos on the Friends of the Galapagos program.

Following the videos and shakedown for donations, we headed to check-out the giant tortoises.  Along the way, Opuntia trees towered next to candelabra cactus.  Lot’s of bizarre xerophytes I didn’t know.  In pens and behind bars, we finally saw baby tortoises (yearlings).  After more cages, we crossed a boardwalk to spot Lonesome George, the last Pinta tortoise.  George was apparently asleep on the edge of a set of steps.  His domed carapace was dusty and dry, and the rear third of his body hanged out over the edge of the steps.  His rear left leg dangled in mid air.  I was only able to see his back side as he faced away from me.  I’m looking at the last of a species!  I wonder… did anyone think the same when spotting the very last Steller’s Sea Cow?  The last Thylacine?  Last Dodo?

I’m humbled, squatting in front of these metal bars, gazing at this ancient reptile.  It’s almost fitting that he’s turned his back to me.

A short walk takes me past some closer views of other monumental tortoises.  What hippo-like/elephant-like feet they have.  Just pedestals.  Throughout the tortoise paddock, big mounds of giant tortoise shit litter the ground.  At the end of the enclosure, a really enormous tortoise with a nearly 1.5 meter long carapace was resting in the shade.  While I watched, another visitor used a camera with a flash which startled the tortoise.  The giant expelled air out of it’s mouth in a hoarse, “Hhhchaaaa, Hhhchaaa, Haaaaaa…“  Amazing!

Though incredible to see all this, there was the quality of a zoo visit to these encounters.  I saw these Galapagos wonders in the flesh, but the setting was contrived and removed.  Out of place.  Like religious art, intended to be displayed in a church, instead hung in a museum.  It’s out of context.  I wish I had found these amazing animals while wandering a trail in the park… Just a slice of their daily lives.  Fat chance, I’m afraid.

It’s tempting to write far-reaching metaphors on news of Lonesome George’s demise.  Especially since this obituary was an inevitability considering the science of minimum viable populations and the lack of other Pinta tortoises cropping up over the years.  I could also wax cynical and suggest that news of Rio +20 failure reached George’s ears and it was more than he could bear.  I’ll spare you my dot-connecting.  Besides, I’m sincerely saddened by this news.  We have a rare moment in time to globally recognize the loss of yet another charismatic species at the hands of human incursion.  Not that the less charismatic losses are any less important, but Lonesome George was more than just an icon.  He was a brand.  His image graced the Galápagos National Park Logo.  And as a long-lived species, his passing has even more impact considering the long watch George kept on the planet.  George was more than likely over 100 years old, and perhaps a good deal older than that.  We humans like to make a fuss about individuals of our own species attaining “old age.”  I’m not saying we celebrate our elders.  On the contrary, at least here in the US we tend to marginalize our seniors.  But we nonetheless like to herald milestones of age and marvel at significant passings.

Well, Lonesome George’s age and death is a milestone as well.  His passing marks another notch on the scorecard for loss of global biodiversity.  In the existential sense, people in Peoria, Minsk, or Jakarta will go about their lives today oblivious of George’s departure.  But this is yet another species that has not shuffled off due to natural causes, but as a result of our handiwork.  And if what we understand about biodiversity is true, that rich and complex biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity, then each species, no matter how small or isolated, all have an important role to play.

So Long, George.  The world was a better place with you.

5 responses

  1. poor tortoise!

    June 30, 2012 at 10:43 am

    • agree :( poor world as well, is great loss

      June 30, 2012 at 1:30 pm

      • absolutely! our great loss! :-( when shall human stop hurting the animals?!

        June 30, 2012 at 5:56 pm

  2. Reblogged this on Space for lasam and commented:
    Reblog: Encomium: Lonesome George the tortoise

    http://sonocarina.wordpress.com/2012/06/30/encomium-lonesome-george/

    by L’amore e forte come la morte
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++

    啟發進化論 巨型象龜絕種 「寂寞喬治」終年百歲
    明報明報 – 2012年6月26日星期二上午5:29

    文章: 棲息南美火山島 人類移民毁生態

    2012年6月26日星期二上午5:29

    【明報專訊】世界保育象徵、百歲巨龜「寂寞喬治」周日離世,意味又有一個物種從地球上消失。「寂寞喬治」是加拉帕戈斯象龜平塔島亞種的最後一員,專家多年來一再努力,都無法為牠存嗣。這種象龜是體型最大的一種陸生龜類,曾啟發達爾文鑽研進化論。

    屍體永存公園展覽

    明星巨龜「寂寞喬治」(Lonesome George)每年吸引18萬遊客造訪厄瓜多爾加拉帕戈斯國家公園。公園發言人表示,負責照顧這隻250公斤雄性象龜的職員,周日早上發現牠在所生活的聖魯克斯島(Santa Cruz Island)上,頭向水坑癱在地上動也不動。園方會驗屍查找其死因,並會將屍體永遠保存,留在園內展示。

    專家助繁殖多年無果

    象龜是陸生龜類中體型最大的一種,而加拉帕戈斯象龜壽命可達200歲,科學家估計「寂寞喬治」離世時約100歲。牠在1972年始見於加拉帕戈斯群島中最小的平塔島(Pinta Island)。由於當年已屬瀕臨絕種生物,故一直獲積極保育,惟由於同類俱亡,無法自行繁衍。科學家自1993年起不斷嘗試為牠繁殖後代,曾讓另外兩隻類近的母龜與之交配後生蛋兩次,但均非受精蛋。

    加拉帕戈斯群島距厄瓜多爾海岸1000公里,過去因水手和漁民獵殺島上象龜食用,導致象龜瀕臨絕種,1950年代人們又把山羊引進島上,進一步威脅象龜生存。群島上現共約存2萬隻象龜,而加拉帕戈斯象龜曾有至少15個亞種,惟連同平塔島亞種在內,已有4種滅絕。

    園方將在7月召開國際研討會,紀念「寂寞喬治」及討論未來10年烏龜數量保育策略。

    http://hk.news.yahoo.com/啟發進化論-巨型象-絕種-寂寞喬治-終年百歲-212913462.html

    June 30, 2012 at 10:54 am

  3. Pingback: Space for lasam

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