“Night Witches” ~ Nachthexen
“Night Witches” is the English translation of Nachthexena , World War II German nickname (Russian Ночные ведьмы, Nochnye Vedmy), for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th “Taman” Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces. The regiment was formed by Colonel Marina Raskova and led by Major Yevdokia Bershanskaya.
The regiment flew harassment bombing and precision bombing missions against the German military from 1942 to the end of the war. At its largest size, it had 40 two-person crews. It flew over 23,000 sorties and is said to have dropped  3,000 tons of bombs. It was the most highly decorated female unit in the Soviet Air Force, each pilot having flown over 800 missions by the end of the war and twenty-three having been awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title. Thirty of its members died in combat.
The regiment flew in wood and canvas Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes, a 1928 design intended for use as training aircraft and for crop-dusting, and to this day the most-produced biplane in all of aviation history. The planes could carry only six bombs at a time, so multiple missions per night were necessary. Although the aircraft were obsolete and slow, the pilots made daring use of their exceptional maneuverability; they had the advantage of having a maximum speed that was lower than the stall speed of both the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, and as a result, the German pilots found them very difficult to shoot down. An attack technique of the night bombers was to idle the engine near the target and glide to the bomb release point, with only wind noise to reveal their location. German soldiers likened the sound to broomsticks and named the pilots “Night Witches.” Due to the weight of the bombs and the low altitude of flight, the pilots carried no parachutes.
From June 1942, the 588th Night Bomber Regiment was within the 4th Air Army. In February 1943 the regiment was honored with a reorganization into the 46th Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment and in October 1943 it became the 46th “Taman” Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment. The word Taman referred to the unit’s involvement in two celebrated Soviet victories on the Taman Peninsula, during 1943.
The story of the Women’s Air Service Pilots (WASP) in the United States is relatively well known. Much less well known however is the story of the Night Witches, an incredible group of Soviet women who flew bombing missions during World War II.
The year was 1941 and Hitler had invaded the Soviet Union. By November the German army was just 19 miles from Moscow. Leningrad was under siege and 3 million Russians had been taken prisoner. The Soviet air force was grounded.
In the summer of 1941 Marina Raskova, a record-breaking aviatrix, was called upon to organize a regiment of women pilots to fly night combat missions of harassment bombing. From mechanics to navigators, pilots and officers, the 588th regiment was composed entirely of women. The 588th was so successful and deadly that the Germans came to fear them, calling them Nachthexen–night witches.
The women, most of them barely 20 years old, started training in Engels, a small town north of Stalingrad. The women of the 588th flew their first bombing mission on June 8, 1942. It consisted of three planes; their target was the headquarters of a German division. The raid was successful but one plane was lost.
The 588th flew thousands of combat bombing missions. They fought non-stop for months, sometimes flying 15 to 18 missions on the same night. They flew obsolete Polikarpov Po-2 wooden biplanes that were otherwise used as trainers. They could only carry two bombs that weighed less than a ton altogether. Most of the women who survived the war had, by the end, flown almost a thousand missions each.
Nadya Popova recalls those missions and comments that it was a miracle the Witches didn’t suffer more losses. Their planes were the slowest ones in the air force and often came back riddled with bullets, but they kept flying. In August of 1942 Nadya and her navigator crashed in the Caucasus. They were found alive a few days later.
Years after the war, Nadya commented that she used to sometimes look up into the dark night sky, remembering when she was a young girl crouched at the controls of her bomber, and she would say to herself, “Nadya, how did you do it?”
There was a great deal of resistance to the idea of women combat pilots from their male counterparts. The women had to fight both enemy aircraft as well as the resentment of their male colleagues. In spite of the never-ending fatigue , the loss of friends, and sexual harassment from their suspicious male counterparts, the women kept on flying. Eventually the Soviets formed three regiments of women combat pilots — the 586th, the 587th and the 588th.
The 586th also trained at Engels, first in the two-seat Yak-7 trainers and later on in the Yak-1 fighters. The women proved themselves to be as good as the men. The most outstanding pilots were Raisa Belyaeva and Valeria Khomyakova. The later was allowed to fly solo in the Yak-1 after just 52 minutes of dual instruction. She earned the grade of “excellent” during one trial flight but on a subsequent flight crash-landed on the frozen Volga River when she switched to an empty fuel tank. All of the women had their hands full, learning so much information in such a short amount of time.
The female mechanics also had their hands full with the demanding task of keeping the planes flying. The winter of 1942 was brutally cold, with temperatures plunging as low as -54F and countless snow storms. One night in March of that year the women were called upon to save the aircraft from being blown over by gale-force winds. Several women would literally lie on the wings and horizontal stabilizers of each plane, using the weight of their bodies to keep the planes from blowing away. When the wind subsided, the women looked like snowmen, but the planes were intact. Their respite was brief however. By noon the storm had resumed, and again the women rushed to the airfield to save the planes. The storm finally blew itself out around midnight, and the exhausted women, soaked to the skin and half frozen, could finally rest.
Tactics used by the Night Witches
The Night Witches practiced what is known as harassment bombing. Their targets were encampments, supply depots, rear base areas, etc. Their constant raids made rest for the troops difficult and left them feeling very insecure.
The top speed of the Po-2 biplane was 94 mph ((82 knots). This is slower than even most World War I fighters and left them very vulnerable to enemy night fighters. But the Night Witches learned their craft well. The Po-2 was very slow, but it was also extremely maneuverable. When a German Me-109 tried to intercept it, the Night Witches would throw their Po-2 biplanes into a tight turn at an airspeed that was below the stalling speed of the Me-109. This forced the German pilot to make a wider circle and come back for another try, only to be met by the same tactic, time after time. Many of the Witches flew so low to the ground that they were hidden by hedgerows! Completely frustrated, the German pilots would finally simply give up and leave the Po-2 biplanes alone. German pilots were promised an Iron Cross for shooting down a Po-2!
The stall speed of an Me-109 E,F and G models was about 120 mph ((104 knots). This made the top speed of the Po-2 biplanes slower than the stalling speed of the German fighters. The Focke-Wulf, also used in the Eastern front, had a high stalling speed as well, so it suffered the same fate.
The Witches developed the technique of flying close to their intended targets, then cutting their engines. Silently they would glide to their targets and release their bombs. Then they would restart their engines and fly away. The first warning the Germans had of an impending raid was the sound of the wind whistling against the wing bracing wires of the Po-2s, and by then it was too late.
The Po-2 would often pass undetected by the radar of the German fighters due to the unreflective nature of the canvas surfaces and also because they flew so low to the ground. Planes equipped with infrared heat seekers fared no better at detecting them due to the small heat emission from their puny little 110-hp engines.
Searchlights, however presented a big problem. The Germans at Stalingrad developed what the Russians called a “flak circus”. They would arrange flak guns and searchlights (hidden during the day) in concentric circles around probable targets. Planes flying in pairs in a straight-line flight path across the perimeter were often ripped to shreds by the flak guns. So the Night Witches of the 588th developed their own technique to deal with the problem. They flew in groups of three. Two would go in and deliberately attract the attention of the Germans. When all the searchlights were pointed at them, the two pilots would suddenly separate, flying in opposite directions and maneuvering wildly to shake off the searchlight operators who were trying to follow them. In the meantime the third pilot would fly in through the dark path cleared by her two teammates and hit the target virtually unopposed. She would then get out, rejoin the other two, and they would switch places until all three had delivered their payloads. As Nadya Popova noted, it took nerves of steel to be a decoy and willingly attract enemy fire, but it worked very well.
Marina Raskova – record-breaking Soviet aviatrix
In 1938 Marina Raskova and two other women set a world record for non-stop direct flight by women when they flew an ANT-37, a Soviet-built twin-engine aircraft named Rodina (homeland), 6,000 kilometers (3,240 nautical miles) from Moscow to Komsomolsk-on-Amur on the southeastern tip of Siberia.
The aircraft started icing up over Siberia, and the women struggled to gain altitude. They threw everything they could move out of the airplane, but still they continued to lose altitude. Realizing they were out of options and a crash was inevitable unless they could further lighten the plane, Marina, who was the navigator on the flight, decided upon a daring course of action. Noting their position on a map she bailed out into the frigid darkness of Siberia. The two remaining women eventually landed safely at their destination, and a hunter rescued Marina.
Marina and the other two women were the first women to be awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union medal for their record-breaking flight. It was Marina’s accomplishments and visibility that helped her persuade Stalin to form the three regiments of women combat pilots.
Hundreds of women served as Soviet combat pilots and flight crew during World War II. Other nations allowed a few women to fly as flight instructors, test or ferry pilots, but only the Red Air Force sent women into battle. This was not from any shortage of male aviators – theLuftwaffe’s destruction of hundreds of Soviet planes on the ground in the war’s opening strikes left a surplus of pilots, but a desperate shortage of modern aircraft. So women combat pilots were not a propaganda ploy to show off Communist “gender equality” – there was very little wartime publicity for the female aviators. The battle to let Soviet women fly in combat was the achievement of one young major, Marina M. Raskova.
To my shame, I’d never heard of the “Night Witches” until reading that Nadezhda Popova died earlier this month. Once I learned more, I was amazed. The Night Witches were an elite team of all-female bomber pilots who flew old cropdusting planes and kicked so much Nazi ass.
Popova died at 91, a veteran of 852 bombing missions. That’s about how many dinners you’ve eaten for over two years, just to give a sense of scale. Combined, the Night Witches flew over 30,000 missions, dropping over 23,000 tons of bombs on German invaders in the Soviet Union, with each plane dropping one or two bombs at most. These missions that the Night Witches flew are pretty incredible even if she’d only flown one.
During World War II, American women were put to work; in Russia, women were put to war. In 1941, Operation Barbarossa meant the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi forces, and the Soviets’ foray into an untapped reservoir of strength: female bomber pilots. Though Soviet women were barred from combat at the beginning of the war, a record-breaking aviatrix named Marina Raskova (hailed as the “Soviet Amelia Earhart”) was later called upon by Joseph Stalin to organize a regiment of young female pilots to fight the German invaders, making the Soviet Union the first nation to allow women to fly combat missions.
The Nazis dubbed them the ‘Night Witches’, on account of the way they would cut their aircraft engines to silently swoop in before dropping their bombs.
The ‘whooshing’ noise they made as they passed overhead was said to resemble a witch’s broomstick.
In 1941, as the Soviet Union struggled desperately to stop the German advance, Stalin ordered the formation of three all-women air force units.
Among the first volunteers was 19-year-old Nadezhda Popova, who would go on to become one of the most celebrated heroes of the Soviet Union.
Popova, who died this week at the age of 91, flew 852 missions against the Germans in rickety wooden biplanes and was shot down several times.
Her unit, the 588th Night Bomber Regiment was equipped with obsolete two-seater Polikarpov PO-2 biplanes.
The aircraft, made of wood and fabric, were slow and cumbersome. They had no radio, no guns and no parachutes.
To navigate, the pilots used a stopwatch and a map. They were too vulnerable to fly during the day so only flew night missions.
Their job was to harass the German positions, taking out the troops’ encampments, storage depots and supply lines.
The ‘Night Witch’ who carried out hundreds of bombing raids as part of Russia’s elite all-women World War Two air squad